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江西藝緣精品推薦《十八羅漢(文翚長絹)(1)》

清代乾隆時期畫家——文翚(hui)居士,公元1703820-公元1789315日,享年八十六,一位專畫佛像,代表作品《十八羅漢》《韓熙載夜宴圖》The painter of the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty-Hui layman, August 20, 1703 AD-March 15, 1789 AD, at the age of 86, a special painting of Buddha statues, representing the work "18 Arhats" "Han Xizai night feast map"

 

在乾隆時期對藝術家來說是幸亦是不幸;幸者,乾隆帝在位期間清朝達到了康乾盛世以來的最高峰,他在康熙、雍正兩朝文治武功的基礎上,進一步完成了多民族國家的統一,社會經濟文化有了進一步發展。不幸者,國家興盛,藝術家人才輩出,要在眾多優秀的畫家中脫穎而出是何其之難。It was fortunate and unfortunate for artists during the Qianlong period; Fortunately, during the reign of Emperor Qianlong, the Qing Dynasty reached the highest peak since the prosperity of Kangqian. On the basis of the martial arts of the Kangxi and Yongzheng dynasties, he further completed the unification of multi-ethnic countries and further developed socio-economic and cultural development. Unfortunate people, the prosperity of the country, artists and talented people, it is difficult to stand out among many excellent painters.

 

文翚居士,留世品甚少,只能在少數的作品中得知乃乾隆時期專畫佛像,羅漢的畫家,且工筆了得,畫像入木三分,人物生動傳神,是畫佛像的佼佼者。佛像是多為畫師不敢碰觸的題材,更何況是在尚佛的乾隆時期,佛者乃神明,不可褻瀆,威嚴且慈祥,二者本身就是矛盾,畫師要同時刻畫出這兩種神態,沒有扎實的畫工和對人物表情的深透理解是無法作畫的,故此在乾隆時期,文翚居士的畫像專供達官貴人,最為出色者是:十八羅漢圖。Wen Yus layman, who has very few worldly products, can only learn in a few works that he was a painter who painted Buddha statues during the Qianlong period and Luo Hans painter. The Buddha statues are mostly subjects that painters do not dare to touch. Not to mention that during the Qianlong period of the Buddha, the Buddha was a God, not to be desecrated, dignified, and kind. The two were themselves contradictions. The painter wanted to portray these two styles at the same time. Without a solid painter and a deep understanding of the expression of the characters, it was impossible to paint. Therefore, during the Qianlong period, the portrait of Wen Yus layman was dedicated to the honorable person. The most outstanding person was: the 18th Arhats.

 

《清代十八羅漢介紹》

據唐玄奘法師西行取經帶回的《法經記-xyt》說,慶友尊者在涅槃時將住世十六位大阿羅漢的名號告知眾生,十六羅漢即廣為流傳。到了清代,世人在為十六羅漢造像時,出于尊敬,將慶友尊者及玄奘大師加進去,于是,十六尊者即演變成十八羅漢,只是后兩位羅漢名號時有變化。清乾隆年間,由乾隆帝欽定,將十七、十八羅漢定為降龍羅漢和伏虎羅漢,十八羅漢名號才最終確定。

"Introduction to 18 Arhats in the Qing Dynasty"
According to the "Book of the Book of Law-xyt" brought back by Master Tang Xuanzangs westbound scriptures, the Qing Youzun told all beings about the name of the 16th Arhat who lived in Nirvana, and the 16th Arhats were widely circulated. In the Qing Dynasty, when the world was creating statues for the Sixteen Arhats, out of respect, the Qing Youzun and Xuanzang Masters were added. As a result, the sixteen became eighteen Arhats, but the latter two were Arhats. There are changes in the name. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor Qianlong established the 17th and 18th Arhats as the dragons and Fuhuluohan. The name of the 18th Arhats was finally determined.

 

第一羅漢 跋羅墮尊者《騎鹿羅漢》

原是印度優陀延王的大臣,出家成道后,常騎鹿回宮,勸導國王出家,并用種種比喻說明欲念之可厭,終于說動國王讓位給太子而出家,故世人俗稱他為“騎鹿羅漢”。First Luo Han Luo Luozun "Deer Luo Han"
Originally the minister of the King of India, Chengdao, after he became a monk, often rode the deer back to the palace, persuaded the king to become a monk, and used various metaphors to explain the disgust of desire. He finally said that the king gave way to the Prince and became a monk. Therefore, the world commonly known as him. For "riding deer Luohan."

第二羅漢 伽伐蹉尊者《喜慶羅漢》

原是古印度的一位雄辯家。有人曾問他:“什么是喜”?他解釋說:“由聽覺、視覺、嗅覺、味覺和觸覺而感到的快樂謂之喜。”又問他:“什么是慶?”,他說:“不由眼耳鼻口手所感覺的快樂,就是慶。比如誠心向佛,心覺佛在,即感快樂。”故世人又稱其為“喜慶羅漢”。The Second Rohan Gawa Adventist "Happy Lohan"
It was originally an eloquence in ancient India. Someone once asked him: "What is joy?" He explained: "The joy of hearing, sight, smell, taste, and touch is joy. "Ask him again:" What is celebration? "He said:" The joy that is not felt by the eyes, ears, nose and mouth hands is Qing. For example, Sincerely to the Buddha, the heart feels that the Buddha is in, that is, happy. Therefore, the world also calls it "festive Luohan."

 

第三羅漢 諾迦跋哩陀尊者《舉缽羅漢》

原是一位化緣和尚。他化緣的方法與眾不同,是高舉鐵缽向人乞食,成道后,世人稱其為“舉缽羅漢”。The third Nuojiaba
It was originally a monk. The method of his conversion is different. He holds high the iron and eats people. After Chengdaos death, the world calls it "Luo Han."

 

第四羅漢 蘇頻陀尊者《托塔羅漢》

原是佛陀最后一位弟子。因塔是佛的象征,為紀念和追隨佛祖,他特制一塔隨身攜帶,成道后世人稱其為“托塔羅漢”。Fourth Supintuozunzhe
It was originally the last disciple of the Buddha. Inta is a symbol of the Buddha. In order to commemorate and follow the Buddha, he specially carried a tower with him. After Chengdao, the world called it "Totarohan."

 

 

第五羅漢 諾炬羅尊者《靜坐羅漢》

原是一武士,出家后,師父為了讓他摒棄以往粗野的性格,讓他學靜坐。但他靜坐時仍現出大力士的體格,故成道后世人稱他為“靜坐羅漢”。

第六羅漢 跋陀羅尊者《過江羅漢》

原是佛祖的一名侍者,主管佛祖洗浴事。他的母親在跋陀羅樹(又稱賢樹)下產下他,故名。據傳,東印度群島的佛教就是因他乘船渡江海而傳播過去的,故世人稱他為“過江羅漢”。

第七羅漢 迦力迦尊者《騎象羅漢》

原是一位馴象師。因象的威力大,能耐勞又能致遠,是佛法的象征。故成道后世人稱他為“騎象羅漢”。The Fifth Nuojuluo
Originally a samurai, after he became a monk, Master let him learn to sit quietly in order to let him abandon his rough character in the past. However, when he sat down, he still showed the physique of Hercules. Therefore, Chengdaos later generations called him "sitting in Luohan."
The Sixth Luo Han Gandhara "Jiangluohan"
It was originally a waiter of Buddha and was in charge of Buddhas bath. His mother gave birth to him under Batuoluoshu(also known as Yin Shu), hence the name. According to legend, Buddhism in the East Indies spread because he sailed across the sea. Therefore, the world called him "Jiangluohan."
Seventh Rohan, Caligath, "Riding the Elephant"
Originally a trainer. Because of the power of the elephant, it is a symbol of the Dharma. Therefore, Chengdao later called him "riding like Luohan."

 

第八羅漢 佛陀羅尊者《笑獅羅漢》

原是一位勇猛的獵人,連獅虎也能獵殺。后出家戒殺,將證阿羅漢果時,有兩只小獅子走到他身邊感激他放下屠刀。成道后,他就將這兩只小獅子帶在身邊,故人稱“笑獅羅漢”。

第九羅漢 戌博迦尊者《開心羅漢》

原是中天竺太子,其弟想與他爭奪王位。他對他弟弟說:“我心里只有佛,而沒有王位。”且打開胸膛,弟弟見他心中果然只有一佛,遂不作亂。成道后世人稱他為“開心羅漢”。

第十羅漢 伴諾迦尊者《探手羅漢》

原是個“路邊生”的私生子,與第十六羅漢為同胞兄弟。因他打坐時常用半跏趺坐法,打坐完畢即雙手舉起,長噓一口氣,成道后世人稱其為“探手羅漢”。Eighth Fotuoluos "Laughing Lion Lohan"
Originally a fierce Hunter, even a lion Tiger can hunt. After the monk quit killing, when he will prove Arrohango, two small lions came to him and thanked him for putting down the butcher knife. After Chengdao, he brought the two small lions with him. The old man called "Laughing Lion Lohan."
Ninth Luo Hanxi Bojia "Happy Lohan"
Originally the Prince of Zhongtian, his brother wanted to compete with him for the throne. He said to his younger brother: "I only have the Buddha in my heart and there is no throne. "And opened his chest, and his younger brother saw that there was only one Buddha in his heart. Chengdao later called him "happy Luohan."
The tenth Bannuo
It was originally an illegitimate child born on the roadside and was a compatriot brother with the sixteenth Rohan. Because he often used the half-squat method when he was meditating, after the meditation was completed, his hands were raised and he took a long breath. After Chengdao, the world called it "the exploration of Luohan."

第十一羅漢 羅怙羅尊者《沉思羅漢》

原是釋迦佛唯一的親生兒子,隨父出家,為佛陀的十大弟子之一,以密行著稱。所謂“密行”,就是在沉思中能知人所知,在行動時能行人所不能行。故世人稱他為“沉思羅漢”。

第十二羅漢 那迦犀尊者《挖耳羅漢》

原是一位理論家,因論“耳根”而聞名于世。所謂“耳根”,是眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意六根之一,六根是人們認識世界的主要器官,要想成佛,必須六根清凈。六根中,耳根是由于覺凈而生認識,故耳根清凈最為第一。因為那迦犀論耳根清凈最為到家,故佛教造像常將他的形象塑畫為挖耳狀,故世人稱其為“挖耳羅漢”。Eleventh Luohuluo
Originally the only biological son of Sakyamuni, he became a monk with his father and was one of the top ten disciples of the Buddha. The so-called "secret line" is to know what people know in meditation and what pedestrians can not do when they act. The world called him "meditating on Lohan."
Twelfth Rohan Naga Rhinoceros "Digging Lohan"
Originally a theorist, he was famous for his "ear roots." The so-called "ear root" is one of the six roots of eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and meaning. Six roots are the main organs that people recognize the world. To become a Buddha, six roots must be clean. Among the six roots, the ear root is due to awareness and awareness, so the ear root is the first to be clean. Because Nagas rhinoceros is the most pure and clean, the Buddhist statues often paint his image as an ear-shaped ear, so the world calls it "the ear of the ear."

 

第十三羅漢 因迦陀尊者《布袋羅漢》

原是古印度捕蛇人,常攜帶布袋入山捉蛇以免行人被蛇咬傷,又將抓到的蛇拔去毒牙放生于山林,因發善心而證得阿羅漢果位。因他隨身總帶一裝蛇的布袋,故世人稱他為“布袋羅漢”。

第十四羅漢 伐那波斯尊者《芭蕉羅漢》

原是生意人,出生時雨下得正大,后院的芭蕉樹葉被大雨打得沙沙作響,故被取名為伐那波斯(梵文“雨”的意思)。后他出家常在芭蕉樹下用功并因此成道,故世人稱他“芭蕉羅漢”。

第十五羅漢 阿氏多尊者《長眉羅漢》

原是一個和尚,生下來就有兩條長長的白眉,因為他前世就是一位修行和尚,修行到老,毛發都脫落了,只剩下兩條長眉毛,死后投胎轉世,將長眉毛也帶了出來。父親知道他是修行人,故又送他出家,終于修成阿羅漢果,故世人稱他為“長眉羅漢”。

 

第十六羅漢 荼畔咤迦尊者《看門羅漢》

原是第十羅漢的弟弟,他出家后化緣的辦法是用拳頭拍門叫屋里的人出來布施。佛認為不妥,就賜他一根錫杖。他化緣時,就用錫杖在人家門前搖動,人家聽見這聲音果然就心生歡喜,開門布施,成道后世人就稱他為看門羅漢。這錫杖(也叫禪杖)后來也就成為和尚出門隨帶的法器。

 

第十七羅漢 為慶友尊者《降龍羅漢》

原是古印度惡魔波旬,他大扇動那竭國人四出殺害僧人,盡毀佛殿佛塔,將所有的佛經都劫到那竭國去。龍王用洪水淹沒了那竭國,將佛經收藏于龍宮。后來,慶友尊者降服龍王,取回佛經,故也人稱他為“降龍羅漢”。

第十八羅漢 為賓頭盧尊者《伏虎羅漢》

原是僧人,賓頭盧尊者的寺廟外,常有虎嘯。尊者認為是虎餓了,便將自己的飯食分一些給福虎吃,久而久之,老虎被他的善心收伏了,故也人稱他為“伏虎羅漢。The thirteenth Rohan Inggato "Puppet Rohan"
Originally an ancient Indian snakecatcher, he often carried bags into the mountains to catch snakes so that pedestrians would not be bitten by snakes. He also pulled the captured snakes out of poisonous teeth and released them into the mountains. He was able to prove Alohans position because of his kindness. Because he always carries a bag filled with snakes, he is known as the "bag Luohan."
The 14th Luo Hanhua Persian "Basho Luohan"
Originally a businessman, he was born under the rain, and the leaves of the plantain in the backyard were rustled by heavy rain, so he was named Varna Persia(Sanskrit "rain" meaning). After he became a monk, he often studied under the banana tree and therefore Chengdao, so the world called him "Basho Luohan."
The 15th Rohans more respected "Longbrow Lohan"
Originally a monk, he was born with two long white eyebrows because he was a practicing monk in his past life. He practiced until he was old and his hair fell off. He only had two long eyebrows, reincarnated after death, and brought his long eyebrows. Out. The father knew that he was a practitioner, so he was sent to become a monk and finally became an Arrohan fruit. Therefore, the world called him "Long Eyebrow Lohan."
The 16th Rohans "The Guardian Lohan"
It was originally the brother of the tenth Rohan. The way he became a monk was to beat the door with his fists and call the people in the house to give money. If the Buddha thinks it is wrong, give him a tin stick. When he was married, he shook with a tin stick at the door of the peoples house. When people heard the voice, they were really happy and opened the door to give money. After Chengdao, the world called him a janitor. This tin staff(also known as the staff) later became the instrument of the monks going out.
The 17th Luo Han is the "Dragon Luo Han" for Qing Youzun
Originally an ancient Indian demon, Balten, he fanned the exhausted people to kill the monks, destroyed the Buddhist pagodas, and robbed all the Buddhist scriptures to the exhausted country. The Dragon King flooded the exhausted country with floods and collected Buddhist scriptures in the Dragon Palace. Later, Qing Youzun surrendered to the Dragon King and retrieved the Buddhist scriptures. Therefore, he also called him "Dragon Luo Han."
The 18th Rohan is the "Fuhuluohan"
Originally a monk, outside the temple of the head of Lu Zun, there are often tigers. The respected person thought that the tiger was hungry and he gave some of his food to Fuhu. Over time, the tiger was captured by his kindness. Therefore, he also called him "Fuhuluohan."

 
 
 
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